Civic means government in a republic through constitution, regulation, and policies set out which the people deserve and strive to defend and protect it when they get into office by oath taking. Citizen simply mean a member of a republic. So, civic and citizenship education is simply government providing what the people deserve to make their life better and the citizen on their part offer the government what they owe them by way of support, lawful citizenry and tax payment. As stated in my earlier proposal communiqué to the Provincial I did say that the promoter of justice and peace office will publish four different articles yearly because the recommendation of CTEWA is that peace education must be a priority and curriculum for basic schools should be drawn. Today in Nigeria peace education is taught by the name, neighborhood sefety and security studies in jss 13
In this article we shall expose briefly the dimensions of peace in conflict resolution. On January 1st the archdiocese of Lagos had a celebration for peace, also in our different communities we had project for peace especially for D. R. C, for peace before, during and after elections. The dimensions to be discussed are:
- What is PEACE
- What is peace making
- What is peace keeping
- What is peace is building
- School of thought liberal and research
- Actions to be taken by way of conclusion
PEACE is technically absence of organized violence.
PEACE MAKING: if two parties are not getting along well or there are signs of a possible strain in relationship then peacemaking mechanism initiative could be deployed to prevent conflict. Peace making initiative body will be established whose goal will be to open conservational dialogue and possible resolution that is by way of looking at imbalance in issues of justice in order to restore peace.
PEACE KEEPING: If two parties move from disagreement to actual organized violence against each other than either a unilateral forces or multilateral could be drafted to prevent a full blown war. The trust of the peace keeping force is to play an intermediate role and buffer zoon that makes outbreak of violence difficult, while resolution is sought for.
PEACE BUILDING: Peace keeping operations pave the way for peace building. Peace building is dialogue, conversation that will bring about harmony. The institution of dialogue, truth and reconciliation commission where both sides will be listened to, claims of the victim validated and the infringement of the perpetrator acknowledged and forgiveness extended by both parties. This is the goal of peace building.
SCHOOLS: There are two major schools with regard to conflict resolution, they are the LIBERAL school where the emphasis is on equity and harmony while the REALIST school on the other hand emphasizes physical violence which leads to trauma, that is, psychological agony. The summary is that where there is equity, harmony flourishes and where there is violence trauma increases. Besides the above philosopher positions of the schools they are also related to Power. For the realist, they must always be that top spot or place of supremacy to which everyone aspires, so whoever occupies the place of supremacy has a unipolar power. The liberals propose two other dimension of power to counter or check the supreme power and that is called bipolar power to counter balance the supremacist. To further spread balance, reduced tension thereby spread coalition of harmony to make the world safer, they further propose multipolar power bloc, that is more than
one country having the same power. In addition, other bodies responsible for peace in the world are the United Nations, International Peace Institute, NGOs, church bodies and individual project such as we had for peaceful election in Congo DRC and today we can thank God that it all came to success.
ACTION BY WAY OF CONCLUSION The Catholic Theological Ethnic conference which is a follow up of the African synod in 2010 in Trento suggest that there should be peace education taught from primary to tertiary education. Due to insecurity and insurgency in Nigeria there is now a curriculum on Neighborhood watch and safety studies for JSS students. It further enjoins us to practice the value of the African ecclesiological concept of the church as family in which the other person different from us is always welcomed with hospitality of kola nut breaking and sharing which symbolize value for life and shared humanity. Lastly a lesson for our Country and communities in Isaiah 10: 1-4 is that we should be mindful of laws, rules and policies that excludes the other person which often leads to perceived marginalization and crisis. Community and parochial leaders should be mindful of these and do catechesis of peace, reminding people that peace in the worlds can only come from the peace within.The other topics for the year will be publish in my next articles in the second quarter. Best wishes for the New year.
Brother Michael Edem, OPPromoter, Justice and Peace
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